# Coding

# Coding

**Coding**

**(Note: This topic is Edexcel only.)**

**Coding** is where something is done to **every data value** to make them easier to work with. Indeed, we can **add, subtract, multiply and divide** our data values, and as long as we **do the same thing to each data value**, the **mean** and **standard deviation** of the new set can tell us the **mean** and **standard deviation** of the original values.

There are **three skills** you need to know for **coding**.

**Skill 1: Coding With Raw Data**

To **code** a data point x, we turn it into y=\dfrac{x-a}{b} where a and b are of our choosing. Then we can work with our new data set y to get information about our original x.

**Recall notation: **\text{mean of }x=\bar{x} and \text{variance of }x= \text{var}(x)

To get information about x from our **coded set** y, we have the following formulas:

\bar{y}=\dfrac{\bar{x}-a}{b}

\text{var}(y)=\dfrac{\text{var}(x)}{b^{2}}

**Example: **Find the **mean** and **variance** of 14010,14030,14040,14060

If we use the **coding** y=\dfrac{x-14000}{10} we get y=1,3,4,6, which is much easier to work with.

So, find the mean and variance of the y values:

\bar{y}=\dfrac{1+3+4+6}{4}=3.5

\text{var}(y)=\dfrac{1^{2}+3^{2}+4^{2}+6^{2}}{4}-3.5^{2}=\dfrac{1+9+16+36}{4}-12.25=\dfrac{62}{4}-12.25=15.5-12.25=3.25

Then, find the mean of the original values:

3.5=\dfrac{\bar{x}-14000}{10}

\bar{x}-14000=35

\bar{x}=14035

and the variance of the original values:

3.25=\dfrac{\text{var}(x)}{10^{2}}

\text{var}(x)=325

So the **mean** and **variance** of 14010,14030,14040,14060 is 14035 and 325

**Skill 2: Coding With Summarised Data**

We can also apply **coding** to simplify **summarised data** to calculate the **mean** and** variance**.

**Example: **Suppose we have \sum{(x-100)}=18 and \sum{(x-100)^{2}}=45 with ten data points.

The obvious **coding** to try is y=x-100

This gives \sum{y}=18 and \sum{y^{2}}=45

So, the mean and variance of the y values are:

\bar{y}=\dfrac{18}{10}=1.8

\text{var}(y)=\dfrac{45}{10}-1.8^2=4.5-3.24=1.26

This gives results of:

\bar{x}= \bar{y} +100 = 1.8 + 100 = 101.8

and

\text{var}(x)= \text{var} (y) = 1.26

(the variance of x is the same as the variance of y, since we only subtracted 100 from each number).

A Level**Skill 3: Coding With Grouped Data**

We can **code** **grouped data** by coding the **midpoint** and calculating all our sums with the coded **midpoint**, then converting back at the end.

**Example: **Estimate the** mean** and **variance** of the heights of the teachers at a school from the following table.

**Step 1: **Find the **midpoints**.

**Step 2: **Choose a suitable **coding** for the **midpoints**. Here we should go for y=\dfrac{x-1.55}{0.1}. Now add the **coded** **midpoints** to the table.

**Step 3:** Proceed normally with the **coded** values, by adding an fy column and an fy^{2} column to the table.

**Step 4: **Calculate the** mean** and **variance** estimates for y.

\bar{y}=\dfrac{87}{50}=1.74

\text{var}(y) =\dfrac{191}{50}-1.74^{2}=3.82-3.0276=0.7924

**Step 5: **Use the **coding** formulas to turn these into values for x.

1.74=\dfrac{\bar{x}-1.55}{0.1}

\bar{x}-1.55=0.174

\bar{x}=1.724

0.7924=\dfrac{\text{var}(x)}{0.1^{2}}

\text{var}(x)=0.007924

A Level## Example Questions

**Question 1: **By applying a suitable coding, find the mean and standard deviation of the data set

1000,1010,1030,1040,1070

**[4 marks]**

A suitable coding would be y=\dfrac{x-1000}{10}, which gives y=0,1,3,4,7 as the new data set.

\bar{y}=\dfrac{0+1+3+4+7}{5}=\dfrac{15}{5}=3

\text{var}(y)=\dfrac{0^{2}+1^{2}+3^{2}+4^{2}+7^{2}}{5}-3^{2}=\dfrac{1+9+16+49}{5}-9=\dfrac{75}{5}-9=15-9=6

3=\dfrac{\bar{x}-1000}{10}

\bar{x}-1000=30

\bar{x}=1030

6=\dfrac{\text{var}(x)}{10^{2}}

6=\dfrac{\text{var}(x)}{100}

\text{var}(x)=600

\text{var}(x) is the variance, while the question asked for standard deviation.

\sigma=\sqrt{600}=24.5 (3 sf)

**Question 2: **From the summary statistics below, find the mean and variance of x, provided that there are 8 data points.

\sum{\dfrac{x-4}{12}}=24

\sum{\left(\dfrac{x-4}{12}\right)^{2}}=120

**[2 marks]**

Clearly, we should use the encoding y=\dfrac{x-4}{12} to get:

\sum{y}=24

\sum{y^{2}}=120

So:

\bar{y}=\dfrac{24}{8}=3

\text{var}(y)=\dfrac{120}{8}-3^{2}=15-9=6

Now convert back to x:

3=\dfrac{\bar{x}-4}{12}

\bar{x}-4=36

\bar{x}=40

6=\dfrac{\text{var}(x)}{12^{2}}

6=\dfrac{\text{var}(x)}{144}

\text{var}(x)=864

**Question 3: **Use a suitable encoding to estimate the mean and variance of the grouped data presented below.

**[6 marks]**

**Step 1: **Find the midpoints of each class and add them to the table.

**Step 2: **Choose a suitable coding. In this case, there are a few possibilities, but the one shown here is y=\dfrac{x-1725}{25}.

**Step 3: **Proceed to create the rest of the table, with an fy and an fy^{2} column.

**Step 4: **Calculate the mean and variance for y.

\bar{y}=\dfrac{445}{100}=4.45

\text{var}(y)=\dfrac{3185}{100}-4.45^{2}=31.85-19.8025=12.0475

**Step 5: **Convert back into x values.

4.45=\dfrac{\bar{x}-1725}{25}

\bar{x}-1725=111.25

\bar{x}=1836.25

12.0475=\dfrac{\text{var}(x)}{25^{2}}

12.0475=\dfrac{\text{var}(x)}{625}

\text{var}(x)=7529.6875 or 7530 to 3 significant figures.

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