GCSE Biology - Animal Cells and Plant Cells Revision
What is active transport?
– The movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration, against a concentration gradient, across a membrane. This process requires energy.
What are the three differences between animal and plant cells?
– For your GCSE Biology exam you need to know the three key differences which are that plant cells have; a cellulose cell wall, chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole.
What is meant by cell specialisation?
– Cell specialisation and differentiation are often used interchangeably in the GCSE Biology specification. Cell specialisation is the process of a stem cell becoming adapted for a particular function within the organism.
What is the difference between a chromosome, a gene and DNA?
– This is a good question as it addresses a set of terminology that people often get confused with. DNA is general name given to our genetic material. A gene is a specific section of the DNA that codes for a specific protein. A chromosome is a collection of many genes that are joined together.
What do I need to know about cloning?
– You need to know the methods used to clone both animals and plants. You will need to learn how plant growers clone plants with desired traits on a commercial scale.
– Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, through a partially permeable membrane.
– Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, down a concentration gradient.
What different microscopes do I need to know about for my GCSE Biology exam?
– You need to know about light microscopes (sometimes called optical) as well as electromagnetic microscopes (often called EM microscopes). You need to be able to compare each microscope and use the magnification calculation; make sure you know your units!
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
– Mitosis is cell division in somatic cells also known as body cells, basically cell division in all the cells of the body which aren’t sex cells. Meiosis is cell division that occurs to produce gametes, the sperm and egg cells. There are many differences between them so make sure you learn each process.
What are the key stages to mitosis?
– Prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase are the main stages of mitosis.
What is a stem cell and where in the human body do you find them?
– A stem cell is an unspecialised cell. Different types of stem cells can be found around the human body but for your GCSE Biology exam you need to know that they are produced in the bone marrow.