Adding and Subtracting Fractions Worksheets, Questions and Revision

Adding and Subtracting Fractions Worksheets, Questions and Revision

GCSE 1 - 3KS3AQAEdexcelOCRWJECFoundationAQA 2022Edexcel 2022OCR 2022WJEC 2022

Adding and Subtracting Fractions

In order to add and subtract fractions, you need to find a common denominator – some value that can become the denominator of both fractions. There are two main methods for choosing a common denominator:

Take Note

Before adding and subtracting fractions, it’s important to understand that if you multiply both top and bottom of a fraction by the same value, the fraction’s value doesn’t change. For example,

\dfrac{2}{3}=\dfrac{4}{6},\,\,\,\,\text{ and }\,\,\,\,\dfrac{2}{3}=\dfrac{10}{15}

Example 1: Adding Fractions

Evaluate \dfrac{3}{5} + \dfrac{1}{4}

[2 marks]

To find a common denominator here, we will take the product of the two denominators: 5\times 4=20.

To make sure we aren’t changing the value of the fraction, we also multiply the top by 4.

\dfrac{3}{5}=\dfrac{3\times \textcolor{red}{4}}{5\times \textcolor{red}{4}}=\dfrac{12}{20}

For the second fraction’s denominator to be 20, we’ll have to multiply it by 5. So, we will also have to multiply the top by 5.

\dfrac{1}{4}=\dfrac{1\times \textcolor{red}{5}}{4\times \textcolor{red}{5}}=\dfrac{5}{20}

Now, to add two fractions with the same denominator, simply add the numerators together. Doing so, we get,

\dfrac{3}{5} + \dfrac{1}{4}=\dfrac{12}{20} + \dfrac{5}{20}=\dfrac{17}{20}

Level 1-3 GCSE KS3 AQA Edexcel OCR WJEC

Example 2: Subtracting Fractions

Evaluate \dfrac{4}{7} - \dfrac{2}{5}

[2 marks]

Our choice of common denominator in this case will be \textcolor{red}{7}\times \textcolor{red}{5}=35

To make the denominator of the first fraction 35, we’ll have to multiply its top and bottom by 5. To make the denominator of the second fraction be 35, we’ll have to multiply its top and bottom by 7. This looks like,

\begin{aligned}\dfrac{4}{7}-\dfrac{2}{5} &= \dfrac{5\times 4}{35}-\dfrac{7\times 2}{35} \\ \\ &=\dfrac{20}{35} - \dfrac{14}{35}  =\dfrac{6}{35}\end{aligned}

Remember, in the final step you subtract the numerators, and the denominator is unchanged.

Level 1-3 GCSE KS3 AQA Edexcel OCR WJEC

Example 3: Adding Fractions and Whole Numbers

Evaluate 8+\dfrac{5}{6}

[2 marks]

To add a whole number to a fraction, we turn the whole number into a fraction by dividing by 1. Thus,

\dfrac{8}{1}+\dfrac{5}{6}

This time, since 1\times 6=6, the common denominator will be 6, meaning we’ll only have to change the first fraction – we will multiply its top and bottom by 6. Doing so, we get

\begin{aligned}\dfrac{8}{1}+\dfrac{5}{6} &= \dfrac{8\times 6}{1\times 6}+\dfrac{5}{6} \\ \\  &=\dfrac{48}{6} + \dfrac{5}{6} = \dfrac{53}{6} \end{aligned}

Level 1-3 GCSE KS3 AQA Edexcel OCR WJEC

Example 4: Adding Mixed Fractions

Evaluate 2\dfrac{5}{9}+\dfrac{1}{3}

[3 marks]

To add a mixed number to a fraction, first convert the mixed number to an improper fraction.

2\dfrac{5}{9}=\dfrac{(2\times 9)+5}{9}=\dfrac{23}{9}

Now the calculation looks like

\dfrac{23}{9}+\dfrac{1}{3}

Now, for the common denominator we could use 27 (since it’s the product of 9 and 3). However, the LCM of 9 and 3 is just 9, and if we use 9 as our common denominator we will only have to change the second fraction. Doing this, we get

\begin{aligned}\dfrac{23}{9}+\dfrac{1}{3} &= \dfrac{23}{9}+\dfrac{1\times 3}{3\times 3} \\ \\ &=\dfrac{23}{9} + \dfrac{3}{9} = \dfrac{26}{9} \end{aligned}

This fraction is already in its simplest form, so we’re done. However, if we had chosen 27 as our common denominator, we would’ve had to simplify the fraction at the end.

Level 1-3 GCSE KS3 AQA Edexcel OCR WJEC

Example Questions

To add fractions, they must first share a common denominator.

 

This can be achieved by first multiplying the top and bottom of the first fraction by 3, and then multiplying the top and bottom of the second fraction by 2. Thus,

 

\begin{aligned}\dfrac{1}{8}+\dfrac{5}{12} &= \dfrac{1\times 3}{24}+\dfrac{5\times 2}{24} \\ \\ &=\dfrac{3}{24} + \dfrac{10}{24} =\dfrac{13}{24} \end{aligned}

Writing 5 as \dfrac{5}{1}, the calculation becomes,

 

\dfrac{9}{10}+\dfrac{5}{1}

To add fractions, they must first share a common denominator. This can be achieved by first multiplying the top and bottom of the second fraction by 10. Thus,

\begin{aligned}\dfrac{9}{10}+\dfrac{5}{1} &= \dfrac{9}{10}+\dfrac{5\times 10}{1\times10} \\ \\ &=\dfrac{9}{10} + \dfrac{50}{10} =\dfrac{59}{10} \end{aligned}

To add fractions, they must first share a common denominator.

 

This can be achieved by first multiplying the top and bottom of the first fraction by 3, and then multiplying the top and bottom of the second fraction by 5. Thus,

 

\begin{aligned}\dfrac{4}{5}+\dfrac{5}{3} &= \dfrac{4\times 3}{15}+\dfrac{5\times 5}{15} \\ \\ &=\dfrac{12}{15} + \dfrac{25}{15} = \dfrac{37}{15} \end{aligned}

Firstly we have to convert the mixed fraction to an improper fraction,

 

4\dfrac{1}{2} + \dfrac{4}{3} = \dfrac{9}{2} + \dfrac{4}{3}

 

To add fractions, they must first share a common denominator. This can be achieved by first multiplying the top and bottom of the first fraction by 3, and then multiplying the top and bottom of the second fraction by 2. Thus,

 

\begin{aligned}\dfrac{9}{2} + \dfrac{4}{3} &= \dfrac{9\times 3}{2\times3}+\dfrac{4\times 2}{3\times2} \\ \\ &=\dfrac{27}{6} + \dfrac{8}{6} = \dfrac{35}{6} \end{aligned}

Firstly we have to convert the mixed fractions to an improper fraction,

 

5\dfrac{2}{3} + 2\dfrac{3}{4} = \dfrac{17}{3} + \dfrac{11}{4}

 

To add fractions, they must first share a common denominator. This can be achieved by first multiplying the top and bottom of the first fraction by 4, and then multiplying the top and bottom of the second fraction by 3. Thus,

 

\begin{aligned}\dfrac{17}{3} + \dfrac{11}{4} &= \dfrac{17\times 4}{3\times4}+\dfrac{11\times 3}{4\times3} \\ \\ &=\dfrac{68}{12} + \dfrac{33}{12} = \dfrac{101}{12 }\end{aligned}

Related Topics

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Adding and subtracting fractions - Exam Questions - MME

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