B1A FITNESS AND HEALTH
Blood pressure and how to measure it, diastolic, systolic.
- Consequences of high and low blood pressure
- Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood
- Fitness and its link to blood pressure
- Types of fitness (HT)
- Causes of heart disease
- Symptoms of heart disease
- Effects of high blood pressure
- Cholesterol , plaque, thrombosis (ht), salt, carbon monoxide, (ht) smoking.
B1B HUMAN HEALTH AND DIET
Protein carbohydrates and fats
- Uses of macronutrients
- Food tests
- Components of a balanced diet. Protein, Carbohydrates and fats, minerals (limited to iron), vitamins (limited to vitamin c), fibre water.
- Calculate personal estimated average daily requirement (EAR) for protein, Body Mass
First (animal) and second class proteins (HT)
Obesity and deficiency
- Causes of obesity
- Effects of dietary deficiency
- Prevention of obesity and deficiency
B1C STAYING HEALTHY
Pathogens and causes of disease
- Types of pathogen
- Classification of disease by pathogen.
- How diseases are spread
- protozoa – malaria; Cholera = bacteria ; Athletes foot = fungus ; Flu = virus.
Cancer and non infectious disease
- Types of cancer
- Causes of cancer including carcinogens and genetic effects
- Lifestyle and cancer risk
- Treatments for cancer
- Difference between benign and malignant tumours.
Prevention of disease
- Healthy diet and it’s link to prevention of disease
Immunisation and testing of drugs
- History of vaccines
- Social issues with vaccination
- Herd immunity
- How drugs can be used to fight disease
How vaccines work.(HL)
- Harmless pathogen given which carries antigens
- Antigens trigger immune response by white blood
- Cells which produce antibodies
- Immunity remains (memory cells produced)
- Processes involved in getting a drug to market.
- Animal testing
B1D THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The eye and senses
- The five senses
How the eye works:
- Cornea – refracts light
- Iris – controls how much light enters pupil
- Lens – focuses light on to retina
- Retina – contains light receptors
- Optic nerve – carries impulses to the brain.
- Monocular Binocular vision
- Long and short sightedness
- Use of lenses to correct vision.
Nervous system and structure
- Structure of neurones
- The reflex arc
- Function of neurones
- Reaction times
- Gap between neurones = Synapse (HL)
B1E DRUGS AND YOU
- Legal versus illegal drugs
- Differences between legal and illegal drugs. Class A class C
- Harmful nature of all drugs
- Social issues surrounding use of drugs
Key words associated with drugs.
- Depressants: slow down brain’s activity
- Pain killers: block nerve impulses
- Stimulants: increase brain’s activity
- Performance enhancers: muscle development
- Hallucinogens: distort what is seen and heard
- Effects of smoking
- Long term consequences of smoking
- Timeline of understanding about smoking and cancer link
- Statistics associated with cigarette smoking.
- Carbon monoxide (lack of oxygen, heart disease);Nicotine (addictive)
- Tars (irritant, carcinogenic)
- Effects of alcohol on the body
- Consequences of drinking alcohol.
- Drink driving
- Statistics associated with alcohol
B1F STAYING IN BALANCE
- Definition of homeostasis
- Maintenance of body temperature, water level and blood sugar.
- Negative feedback
- Importance of homeostasis
- What happens when homeostasis goes wrong
- Vasodilation and vasoconstriction
Insulin and diabetes
- Causes of diabetes
- Symptoms of diabetes
- Hormones vs nerves
- How insulin works
- Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- Pancreas makes insulin
B1G CONTROLLING PLANT GROWTH
Plant growth and hormones
- Hormones speed up or slow down plant growth
- Phototropic and geotropic
- How Auxin works (HL)
Plant hormones and commercial uses.
- Selective weedkillers
- rooting powder
- fruit ripening (delay or acceleration)
- control of dormancy
B1H VARIATION AND INHERITANCE
- Causes of variation
- Chromosomes, DNA and genes
- Inheritance vs environment
- Gametes have half the number of chromosomes of body cells.
- Red-green colour blind
- Cystic fibrosis
- Inheritance of simple genetic diseases
- Effects of genetic disease
- Genetic modification to eliminate disease.
Inheritance and chromosomes Higher only
- Dominant and recessive alleles
- Monohybrid crosses
- Punnet squares
- Phenotype and genotype.
- Homozygous- identical allele
- Heterozygous – different allele
- Genotype and Phenotype