FUNDAMENTAL CHEMICAL CONCEPTS
Write word equations given the reactants and products.
Recall the formula of:
- carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
- oxygen and water.
- (HL) sulphuric acid
- sulfur dioxide
- sodium hydrogencarbonate
- sodium carbonate
Covalent and Ionic bonds
- an ionic bond is the attraction between positive ion and a negative ion.
- a covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons.
- Explain how an ionic bond is formed.
- Explain how a covalent bond is formed.
- positive ions are formed when atoms lose electrons negative ions are formed when atoms gain electrons
Compound or element?
- Work out the number of elements in a compound given its formula.
- Work out the number and type of atoms in a formula with no brackets.
- Work out if a particle is an atom, molecule or ion given its formula.
- Atoms contain smaller particles one of which is a negative electron
C1A MAKING CRUDE OIL USEFUL
- Fractional distillation works because of differences in boiling points.
- LPG, petrol, diesel, parafin, heating oil, fuel oils and bitumen are fractions obtained from crude oil.
- LPG contains propane and butane gases
- What can be made from crude oil and how can the different chemicals be separated out from crude oil.
- Meaning of non-renewable
- How are fossil fuels extracted and what problems do we face as we use them?
- What are fossil fuels and how are they used?
- crude oil is heated
- the fractionating column is colder at the top and hotter at the bottom
- fractions with low boiling points ‘exit’ from the top, with high boiling points ‘exit’ at the bottom.
- needs a catalyst and a high temperature
- converts large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones that are more useful
- petrol from liquid paraffin.
- converts large alkane molecules into smaller
- alkane and alkene molecules
- alkene molecules can be used to make polymers.
- (HT)how do intermolecular forces lead to the difference in boiling points.
- (HT) which fractions are most useful/most in demand as a lead in to the next lesson on cracking
- How oil companies change the amount of product in each fraction to meet the demands of society.
- Use of the different products particularly ethene.
- (HL) why each fraction is not necessarily as useful and why petrol is so useful.
C1B USING CARBON FUEL
- Which properties of a fuel make it suitable for its use?
- Energy value, availability, storage ,cost, toxicity, pollution eg acid rain, greenhouse effect, ease of use
- The complete and incomplete combustion of a fossil fuel. The pros and cons of each.
- Bunsen Flame – blue, yellow flame
- (HL) balance an unbalanced symbol using 2, 1.5 and 1 in front of the oxygen to show how reducing the oxygen can change the products
- Incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel makes carbon monoxide, carbon (soot) and water.
- Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas.
- Write word equations to show the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel given the reactants and products. (HT – balance it)
C1C CLEAN AIR
- O, N, CO2 levels in present day atmosphere are constant.
- Photosynthesis, respiration combustion affect the level of CO2, O in air.
- Air =21% O, 78% N, H2O,CO2
- The present day composition of the atmosphere and how this composition came about from the volcanic gases released into the original atmosphere.
- Volcanoes → atmosphere rich in water and C02
- condensed water vapour form oceans
- Dissolve carbon dioxide in ocean
- Increase of N – due to its lack of reactivity
- Development of plants
- Increase in oxygen levels due to photosynthesis
- Understand where atmospheric pollutants originate from and why they are dangerous.
- carbon monoxide – a poisonous gas formed by incomplete combustion of petrol or diesel in car engines
- oxides of nitrogen make photochemical smog and acid rain and are formed in the internal combustion engine
- sulphur dioxide – causes acid rain that will kill plants, erode stonework and corrode metals and is formed when sulfur impurities in fossil fuels burn.
- catalytic converter removes carbon monoxide from car exhaust.
- (HL) know the balanced symbol equation for a catalytic converter 2CO + 2NO → N2 + 2CO2
P1E COOKING AND COMMUNICATING USING WAVES
- What a hydrocarbon is, the structures of alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons.
- (HL) use the molymods to show that the structure of the hydrocarbons is not in two dimensions but is actually in 3D.
- Many polymers are non-biodegradable and so will not decay or decompose by bacterial action.
- Waste polymers can be disposed of: use of land-fill sites, burning of waste polymers, recycling.
- Structures of alkenes = unsaturated hydrocarbons.
- How addition polymers are made from monomers, Understand the structure of polymers and how to name them.
- Large molecules, called polymers are made when many small molecules, called monomers, join together in a polymerisation reaction.
- Alkenes have a double covalent bond(s) between carbon atoms. Double bonds involve two shared pairs of electrons
- The double bond is shown by the reaction with bromine water orange to decolourised.
- Draw the displayed formula of an addition polymer given the displayed formula of its monomer.
C1E DESIGNER POLYMERS
- Understand the properties of polymers that allow them to be used for specific purposes.
- Gore-Tex®, Nylon
- Nylon is tough, lightweight, keeps water out and keeps uv light out but does not let water vapour through it which means that sweat condenses
- Gore-tex® has all of the properties of nylon but is also breathable.
- Be aware of the problems posed by plastics especially in their disposal: non-biodegradable
- Nylon laminated with ptfe / polyurethane membrane
- Holes in membrane are too small for water to pass through but are big enough for water vapour to pass through
- Membrane is too fragile on its own and so is combined with nylon
- Plastics are held together by strong covalent bonds.
- Relate the properties of plastics to simple models of their structure
C1F COOKING AND FOOD ADDITIVES
- Understand the changes that occur in foods when they are cooked and that some foods have additives to enhance taste/colour etc.
- A chemical change (cooking) takes place if:
- There is a new substance made
- The process is irreversible
- An energy change takes place.
- Antioxidants stop foods from reacting with oxygen
- Food colours give food an improved colour
- Flavour enhancers improve the flavour of a food
- Emulsiers help oil and water to mix and not separate.
- Hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature of emulsifying agents
- Understand the action of heat on baking powder.
- baking powder helps make cakes rise.
- CO2 turns lime water cloudy.
- egg or meat changes when cooked – shape of protein molecules changed.
- Potato is easier to digest if it is cooked
- Word equation for the decomposition of sodium hydrogencarbonate
- ‘sodium carbonate + CO2 + water
- 2NAHCO3→ NA2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
- Make a range of esters and research their uses.
- that alcohols react with acids to make an ester + water.
- Perfumes evaporates easily,non-toxic, does not react with water, does not irritate the skin, insoluble in water.
- Which liquids are solvents for nail varnish
- Describe different views on cosmetic testing on animals.
- Understand the terms solvent, solute, solution, soluble and insoluble
C1H PAINTS AND PIGMENTS
- Paints are colloids and the different parts of a paint.
- What happens when paint dry
- The properties and some uses of thermochromic paints
- The properties and some uses of phosphorescent paints
- Describe how paints dry
- emulsion paints = water based paints that dry when the water evaporates.
- oil paints dry when the solvent evaporates, the oil is oxidised by oxygen
Ingredients of a paint:
- solvent thins the paint and makes it easier to spread
- binding medium sticks the pigment in the paint to the surface
- Pigment is the substance that gives the paint its colour.
- oil paints: have the pigment dispersed in an oil
- paint = colloid where the particles are dispersed with particles of a liquid but are not dissolved.