GCSE Science C3 Chemical Economics Revision List

GCSE Chemistry C3 (OCR B721): Chemical Economics

Year 11 additional science revision for the GCSE Chemistry C3 9-1 course. If you are looking to revise for your GCSE Chemistry C3 exam then looking through the topics and specification before you get into the detail is always a good start.

C3a Rate of reaction (1)

  • Recognise that some reactions can be fast and different rates of reaction. others very slow e.g.
    • rusting is a slow reaction
    • burning and explosions are very fast reactions.

 

  • Label the laboratory apparatus needed to measure the rate of reaction producing a gas:
    • gas syringe
    • flask

 

  • Plot experimental results involving reaction times on a graph.
  • Plot experimental results involving gas volumes or mass loss on a graph.
  • Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the rate of reaction or reaction time for example:
    • reading off values from a graph
    • comparing rates of reaction by comparing gradients of graphs
    • comparing rates of reaction using reaction times.

 

  • Understand that the rate of a reaction measures how much product is formed in a fixed time period.
  • Explain why a reaction stops.
  • Understand common units for the rate of reaction:
    • g/s or g/min eg in a mass loss data gathering experiment
    • cm3/s or cm3/min eg in a gas production data gathering experiment

 

  • Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the rate of reaction or reaction time eg comparing the rate of reaction during a reaction.
  • Interpret data from tabular, graphical and written form about the rate of reaction or reaction time for example:(HL)
    • calculating the rate of reaction from the slope of an appropriate graph including determining units
    • extrapolation
    • interpolation.

 

  • Recognise and use the idea that the amount of product formed is directly proportional to the amount of limiting reactant used.
  • Know that the limiting reactant is the reactant not in excess that is all used up at the end of the reaction.
  • Explain, in terms of reacting particles, why the amount of product formed is directly proportional to the amount of limiting reactant used.(HL)

C3b Rate of Reaction (2)

  • Recognise that chemical reaction takes place when particles collide.
  • Describe the effect of changing temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction.
  • Describe the effect of changing the concentration on the rate of a chemical reaction.
  • Describe the effect of changing the pressure on the rate of a chemical reaction of gases.

 

  • Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of temperature, concentration and pressure on the rate of reaction for example:
    • reading off values from a graph
    • comparing rates of reaction by comparing gradients of graphs
    • comparing rates of reaction using reaction times.

 

  • Understand that the rate of reaction depends on the number of collisions between reacting particles.
  • Understand that the rate of reaction depends on the:(HL)
    • collision frequency of reacting particles
    • energy transferred during the collision (whether the collision is successful or effective)

 

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  • Explain, in terms of the reacting particle model, why changes in temperature change the rate of reaction.
  • Explain, using the reacting particle model, why changes in temperature change the rate of reaction in terms of successful collisions between particles.(HL)
  • Explain, in terms of the reacting particle model, why changes in concentration change the rate of reaction.

 

  • Explain, using the reacting particle model, why changes in concentration change the rate of reaction in terms of successful collisions between particles.(HL)
  • Explain, in terms of the reacting particle model, why changes in pressure change the rate of reaction.
  • Explain, using the reacting particle model, why changes in pressure change the rate of reaction in terms of successful collisions between particles.(HL)

 

  • Interpret data from tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of temperature and concentration on the rate of reaction for example:
    • deciding when a reaction has finished,
    • comparing the rate of reaction during a reaction.

 

  • Draw sketch graphs to show the effect of changing temperature, concentration or pressure on:
    • rate of reaction,
    • amount of product formed in a reaction.

 

  • Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of temperature and concentration on the rate of reaction for example:(HL)
    • calculating the rate of reaction from the slope of an appropriate graph,
    • extrapolation,
    • interpolation.

 

C3c Rate of Reaction (3)

  • Know that the rate of a reaction can be increased by the addition of a catalyst.
  • Know that the rate of a reaction can be increased by using powdered reactant rather than a lump (or vice versa).
  • Describe an explosion as a very fast reaction which releases a large volume of gaseous products.

 

  • Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of surface area and the addition of a catalyst on the rate of reaction, for example:
    • reading off values from a graph
    • comparing rates of reaction by comparing gradients of graphs
    • comparing rates of reaction using reaction times.

 

  • Describe a catalyst as a substance which changes the rate of reaction and is unchanged at the end of the reaction.
  • Understand why only a small amount of a catalyst is needed to catalyse large amounts of reactants and that a catalyst is specific to a particular reaction.
  • Explain, in terms of reacting particles and surface area, the difference in rate of reaction between a lump and powdered reactant.

 

  • Explain, in terms of collisions between reacting particles, the difference in rate of reaction between a lump and powdered reactant.(HL)
  • Explain the dangers of fine combustible powders in factories (eg custard powder, flour or sulfur).

 

  • Interpret data in tabular, graphical and written form about the effect of surface area and the addition of a catalyst on the rate of reaction:
    • deciding when a reaction has finished,
    • comparing the rate of reaction during a reaction.

 

  • Draw sketch graphs to show the effect of changing surface area and the addition of catalyst
    • rate of reaction
    • amount of product formed in a reaction.

 

  • Interpret data from tabular, graphical and written forma about the effect of surface area and the addition of a catalyst on the rate of reaction:(HL)
    • calculating the rate of reaction from the slope of an appropriate graph
    • extrapolation
    • interpolation

 

C2d Reacting masses

  • Calculate the relative formula mass of a substance from its formula (no brackets) given the appropriate relative atomic masses.
  • Understand that the total mass of reactants at the start of a reaction is equal to the total mass of products made and that this is called the principle of conservation of mass ‘law of conservation of mass).

 

  • Be able to use the principle of conservation of mass to calculate mass of reactant or product for example:
    • a) mass of gaseous product formed during decomposition
    • b) mass of oxygen that reacts with a known mass of magnesium to make magnesium oxide.

 

  • Use simple ratios to calculate reacting masses and product masses given the mass of a reactant and a product
  • Calculate the relative formula mass of a substance from its formula (with brackets) given appropriate relative atomic masses.
  • Be able to use provided relative formula masses and a symbol equation (1:1 molar ratio) to show that mass is conserved during a reaction.
  • Explain why mass is conserved in chemical reactions.

 

  • Use relative formula masses and a provided ANY symbol equation to show that mass is conserved during a reaction.(HL)
  • Be able to recognise and use the idea that the mass of product formed is directly proportional to the mass of limiting reactant used.
  • Interpret chemical equations quantitatively. and that can product masses(HL)
  • Calculate masses of products or reactants from balanced symbol equations using relative formula masses.(HL)

C3e Percentage yield and atom economy

  • Understand percentage yield as a way of comparing amount of product made (actual yield) to amount expected (predicted yield):
    • 100% yield means that no product has been lost
    • 0% yield means that no product has been made.

 

  • Be able to recognise possible reasons (given experimental details) why the percentage yield of a product is less than 100% for example:
    • loss in filtration
    • loss in evaporation
    • loss in transferring liquids
    • not all reactants react to make product.

 

  • Understand atom economy as a way of measuring the amount of atoms that are wasted when manufacturing a chemical:
    • 100% atom economy means that all atoms in the reactant have been converted to the desired product
    • the higher the atom economy the ‘greener’ the process.

 

  • Interpretation of simple percentage yield and atom economy data.
  • Know and use the formula:
    • percentage yield = 100 x actual yield / predicted yield

 

  • Explain why an industrial process wants as high a percentage yield as possible, to include:(HL)
    • a) reducing the reactants wasted
    • b) reducing cost.

 

  • Know and use the formula:
    • % atom economy = 100 × Mr of desired products / sum of Mr of all products

 

  • Calculate atom economy when given balanced symbol equation (1:1 molar ratio) and appropriate relative formula masses.
  • Calculate atom economy when given ANY balanced symbol equation and appropriate relative formula masses.(HL)
  • Explain why an industrial process wants as high an atom economy as possible:(HL)
    • to reduce the production of unwanted products
    • to make the process more sustainable.

 

  • Interpret complex percentage yield and atom economy data.

C2f Energy

  • Know that an exothermic reaction is one in which energy is transferred into the surroundings (releases energy).
  • Know that an endothermic reaction is one in which energy is taken from the surroundings (absorbs energy).
  • Be able to recognise exothermic and endothermic reactions using temperature changes.

 

  • Describe, using a diagram, a simple calorimetric method for comparing the energy transferred in combustion reactions:
    • use of spirit burner or a bottled gas burner
    • heating water in a copper calorimeter
    • measuring the temperature change
    • fair tests.

 

  • Interpret and use data from simple calorimetric experiments related to the combustion of fuels to compare which fuel releases the most energy.
  • Know bond making as an exothermic process and bond breaking as an endothermic process.
  • Explain why a reaction is exothermic or endothermic using the energy changes that occur during bond breaking and bond making.(HL)

 

  • Describe a simple calorimetric method for comparing the energy transferred per gram of fuel combusted:
    • use of spirit burner or a bottled gas burner
    • heating water in a copper calorimeter
    • measuring mass of fuel burnt
    • measuring temperature change
    • fair and reliable tests.

 

  • Calculate the energy transferred by using the formula (no recall needed):
      • energy transferred (in J) = m × c × △T
      • where m = mass of water heated in g
      • c = specific heat capacity (4.2 J/g °C)
      • △T = temperature change.
  • Use the formula,
  • energy transferred (in J) = m × c × △T to calculate:(HL)
  • m = mass of water heated in g
  • △T = temperature change.

 

  • Calculate the energy output of a fuel in J/g by knowing and using the formula:(HL)
    • energy per gram = energy released (in J) / mass of fuel burnt (in g)

 

C3g Batch or continuous?

  • Describe the differences between a batch and a continuous process. Industrial case studies.
  • Be able to list the factors that affect the cost of making and developing a pharmaceutical drug:
    • research and testing
    • labour costs
    • energy costs
    • raw materials
    • time taken for development
    • marketing.

 

  • Explain why pharmaceutical drugs need to be thoroughly tested before they can be licensed for use.
  • Know that the raw materials for speciality chemicals such as pharmaceuticals can be either made synthetically or extracted from plants.
  • Explain why it is important to manufacture pharmaceutical drugs to be as pure as possible.
  • Describe how melting point, boiling point and thin layer chromatography can be used to establish the purity of a compound.
  • Explain why batch processes are often used for the production of pharmaceutical drugs but continuous processes are used to produce chemicals such as ammonia.

 

  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous manufacturing processes given relevant data and information.(HL)
  • Explain why it is often expensive to make and develop new pharmaceutical drugs.
  • Explain why it is difficult to test and develop new pharmaceutical drugs that are safe to use.(HL)

 

  • Describe how chemicals are extracted from plant sources:
    • a) crushing
    • b) boiling and dissolving in suitable solvent
    • c) chromatography.

 

  • Interpret melting point, boiling point and chromatographic data relating to the purity of a substance.

C3h Allotropes of carbon and nanochemistry

  • Appreciate that electronic devices are becoming smaller each year due to the introduction of nanotechnology.
  • Know that nanotubes can be made from Fullerenes which are allotropes of carbon.
  • Explain why diamond, graphite and Buckminster fullerene are all forms of carbon.
  • Recognise the structures of diamond, graphite and Buckminster fullerene.

 

  • Know the physical properties of diamond:
    • lustrous, colourless and clear (transparent)
    • hard and has a high melting point
    • insoluble in water
    • does not conduct electricity.

 

  • Know the physical properties of graphite:
    • black, lustrous and opaque
    • slippery
    • insoluble in water
    • conducts electricity.

 

  • Know that nanotubes are used to reinforce graphite in tennis rackets because nanotubes are very strong. colleges has useful worksheets etc).
  • Know that nanotubes are used as semiconductors in electrical circuits.
  • Explain why diamond, graphite and fullerenes are allotropes of carbon.
  • Explain, in terms of properties, why diamond is used in cutting tools and jewellery.

 

  • Explain, in terms of structure and bonding, why diamond:(HL)
    • does not conduct electricity
    • is hard and has a high melting point.

 

  • Explain, in terms of properties, why graphite is used:
    • in pencil leads
    • in lubricants.

 

  • Explain, in terms of structure and bonding, why graphite:(HL)
    • conducts electricity
    • is slippery
    • has a high melting point.

 

  • Explain why diamond and graphite have a giant molecular structure.
  • Predict and explain the properties of substances that have a giant molecular structure.(HL)
  • Explain why fullerenes can be used in new drug delivery systems.
  • Explain how the structure of nanotubes enables them to be used as catalysts.(HL)