#### P3a Speed

- Use the equation:
- average speed = distance / time
- to include change of units from km to m.

- Understand why one type of speed camera takes two photographs:
- a certain time apart
- when the vehicle moves over marked lines a known distance apart on the road

- Draw and interpret qualitatively graphs of distance against time.
- Looking at data from cars, sport and animals then transferring it to graphical form for analysis (distance- time graphs).
- Understand how average speed cameras work.
- Interpret the relationship between speed, distance and time including:
- increasing the speed, which increases the distance travelled in the same time
- increasing the speed reduces the time needed to cover the same distance.

- Use the equation, including a change of subject:
- distance = average speed × time = (u + v) × t / 2

- Interpret the relationship between speed, distance and time to include the effect of changing any one or both of the quantities.(HL)
- Use the equation, including a change of subject and/ or units:(HL)
- distance = average speed × time = (u + v) × t / 2

- Describe and interpret the gradient (steepness) of a distance-time graph as speed (higher speed gives steeper gradient).
- Draw and interpret graphs of distance against time:(HL)
- qualitatively for non-uniform speed
- calculations of speed from the gradient of distance-time graph for uniform speed.

#### P3b Changing Speed

- Describe the trends in speed and time from a simple speed-time graph:
- a) horizontal line – constant speed
- b) straight line positive gradient – increasing speed
- c) straight line negative gradient – decreasing speed.

- Recognise that acceleration involves a change in speed (limited to motion in a straight line):

- a) speeding up involves an acceleration
- b) slowing down involves a deceleration
- c) greater change in speed (in a given time) results in higher acceleration.

- Know that acceleration is measured in metres per second squared (m/s2).
- Use the equation: acceleration = change in speed / time taken
- when given the change in speed.

- Understand that the velocity of an object is its speed combined with its direction.
- Recognise that direction is important when describing the motion of an object.
- Describe, draw and interpret qualitatively, graphs of speed against time for uniform acceleration to include:
- greater acceleration shown by a higher gradient
- the significance of a positive or negative gradient
- calculations of distance travelled from a simple speed-time graph for uniform acceleration.

- Describe, draw and interpret graphs of speed against time including:(HL)
- quantitatively for uniform acceleration
- calculations of distance travelled from a speed- time graph for uniform acceleration
- calculations of acceleration from a speed-time graph for uniform acceleration
- qualitative interpretation of speed-time graphs for non-uniform acceleration.

- Describe acceleration as change in speed per unit time and that:
- increase in speed results from a positive acceleration
- decrease in speed results from a negative acceleration or deceleration.

- Use the equation including prior calculation of the change in speed:
- acceleration = change in speed / time taken

- Explain how acceleration can involve either a change:(HL)
- in speed
- direction
- in both speed and direction.

- Interpret the relationship between acceleration, change of speed and time to include the effect of changing any one or two of the quantities.(HL)

- Use the equation, including a change of subject:
- acceleration = change in speed / time taken

- Recognise that for two objects moving in opposite directions at the same speed, their velocities will have identical magnitude but opposite signs.
- Calculate the relative velocity of objects moving in parallel.

#### P3c: Forces and Motion

- Recognise situations where forces cause things to:
- speed up
- slow down
- stay at the same speed.

- Use the equation:
- force = mass × acceleration
- F = ma

when given mass and acceleration.

- Describe thinking distance as the distance travelled between the need for braking occurring and the brakes starting to act.
- Describe braking distance as the distance taken to stop once the brakes have been applied.
- Describe stopping distance as thinking distance + braking distance.
- Calculate stopping distance given values for thinking distance and braking distance.
- Explain why thinking, braking and stopping distances are significant for road safety.
- Describe and interpret the relationship between force, mass and acceleration in everyday examples.

- Use the equation, including a change of subject:
- force = mass × acceleration

- Use the equation, including a change of subject and the need to previously calculate the accelerating force:(HL)
- force = mass × acceleration

- Explain how certain factors may increase thinking distance:
- driver tiredness
- influence of alcohol or other drugs
- greater speed
- distractions or lack of concentration.

- Explain how certain factors may increase braking distance:
- road conditions
- car conditions
- greater speed.

- Interpret data about thinking distances and braking distances.
- Explain the implications of stopping distances in road safety:
- driving too close to the car in front (ie inside thinking distance)

the police call it ‘tail-gating’ - speed limits
- road conditions.

- driving too close to the car in front (ie inside thinking distance)

- Explain qualitatively everyday situations where braking distance is changed including:(HL)
- friction
- mass
- speed
- braking force.

- Draw and interpret the shapes of graphs for thinking and braking distance against speed.(HL)
- Explain the effects of increased speed on:(HL)
- thinking distance – increases linearly
- braking distance – increases as a squared relationship eg if speed doubles braking distance increases by a factor of four, if speed trebles braking distance increases by a factor of nine.

#### P3d Work and Power

- Know everyday examples in which work is done and power is developed to include:
- lifting weights
- climbing stairs
- pulling a sledge
- pushing a shopping trolley.

- Describe how energy is transferred when work is done.

- Understand that the amount of work done depends on:
- the size of the force in newtons (N)
- the distance travelled in metres (m).

- Know that the joule (J) is the unit for both work and energy.
- Use the equation:
- work done = force × distance

- Know that power is measured in watts (W).
- The plenary could focus on how efficient the human body is as a machine.
- Describe power as a measurement of how quickly work is being done.

- Recognise that cars:
- have different power ratings
- have different engine sizes
- and these relate to different fuel consumptions.

- Use the equation:
- weight = mass × gravitational field strength

- Use the equation, including a change of subject:(HL)
- weight = mass × gravitational field strength

- Use the equation, including a change of subject:
- work done = force × distance

- Use the equation:(HL)
- work done = force × distance

and then use the value for work done in the power equation below.

- work done = force × distance

- Use the equation:
- power = work done / time

- Interpret fuel consumption figures from data on cars to include:
- environmental issues
- costs.

- Use the equation, including a change of subject:(HL)
- power = work done / time

when work has been calculated.

- power = work done / time

- Use and understand the derivation of the power equation in the form:(HL)
- power = force × speed

#### P3e: Energy on the Move

- Understand that kinetic energy (KE) depends on the mass and speed of an object.
- Recognise and describe (derivatives of) fossil fuels as the main fuels in road transport eg petrol and diesel.
- Know that bio-fuels and solar energy are possible alternatives to fossil fuels.

- Describe how electricity can be used for road transport, and how its use could affect different groups of people and the environment:
- battery driven cars
- solar power / cars with solar panels.

- Draw conclusions from basic data about fuel consumption, including emissions (no recall required).
- Recognise that the shape of a moving object can influence its top speed and fuel consumption:
- wedge shape of sports car
- deflectors on lorries and caravans
- roof boxes on cars
- driving with car windows open.

- Use and apply the equation:
- KE = 1/2 mv
^{2}

- KE = 1/2 mv

- Use and apply the equation:(HL)
- KE = 1/2 mv
^{2} - including a change of subject ie

v = √ (2KE/m) and m = 2/KE/(v^{2})

- KE = 1/2 mv

- Apply the ideas of kinetic energy to:(HL)
- relationship between braking distances and speed
- everyday situations involving objects moving.

- Describe arguments for and against the use of battery powered cars.
- Explain why electrically powered cars do not pollute at the point of use whereas fossil fuel cars do.

- Recognise that battery driven cars need to have the battery recharged:
- this uses electricity produced from a power station
- power stations cause pollution.

- Explain why we may have to rely on bio-fuelled and solar powered vehicles in the future.
- Explain how bio-fuelled and solar powered vehicles:(HL)
- reduce pollution at the point of use
- produce pollution in their production
- may lead to an overall reduction in CO2 emissions.

- Interpret data about fuel consumption, including emissions.
- Explain how car fuel consumption figures depend on:(HL)
- energy required to increase KE
- energy required to do work against friction
- driving styles and speeds
- road conditions.

- Evaluate and compare data about fuel consumption and emissions.(HL)

#### P2f: Crumple Zones

- Use the equation:
- momentum = mass × velocity

to calculate momentum.

- momentum = mass × velocity

- Know that a sudden change in momentum in a collision, results in a large force that can cause injury.
- Describe the typical safety features of modern cars that require energy to be absorbed when vehicles stop:
- eg heating in brakes, crumple zones, seat-belts, airbags.

- Explain why seatbelts have to be replaced after a crash.
- Recognise the risks and benefits arising from the use of seatbelts.

- Know and distinguish between typical safety features of cars which:
- are intended to prevent accidents, or
- are intended to protect occupants in the event of an accident.

- Use the equation including a change of subject:
- momentum = mass × velocity

- Describe why the greater the mass of an object and/ or the greater the velocity, the more momentum the object has in the direction of motion.
- Use the equation:
- force = change in momentum / time

to calculate force

- force = change in momentum / time

- Use and apply the equation including a change of subject:
- force = change in momentum / time

- Use Newton’s second law of motion to explain the above points:(HL)
- F = ma

- Explain how spreading the change in momentum over a longer time reduces the likelihood of injury.
- Explain, using the ideas about momentum, the use of crumple zones, seatbelts and airbags in cars.

- Explain why forces can be reduced when stopping (eg crumple zones, braking distances, escape lanes, crash barriers, seatbelts and airbags) by:(HL)
- increasing stopping or collision time
- increasing stopping or collision distance
- decreasing acceleration.

- Describe how test data may be gathered and used to identify and develop safety features for cars.
- Evaluate the effectiveness of given safety features in terms of saving lives and reducing injuries.(HL)

- Describe how seatbelts, crumple zones and airbagsare useful in a crash because they:
- change shape
- absorb energy
- reduce injuries

- Analyse personal and social choices in terms of risk and benefits of wearing seatbelts.(HL)

- Describe how ABS brakes:(HL)
- make it possible to keep control of the steering of a vehicle in hazardous situations (eg when braking hard or going into a skid)
- work by the brakes automatically pumping on and off to avoid skidding
- sometimes reduce braking distances.

#### P3g: Falling safely

- Recognise that frictional forces (drag, friction, air resistance):
- act against the movement
- lead to energy loss and inefficiency
- can be reduced (shape, lubricant).

- Explain how objects falling through the Earth’s atmosphere reach a terminal speed.
- Understand why falling objects do not experience drag when there is no atmosphere.

- Explain in terms of the balance of forces how moving objects:
- increase speed
- decrease speed
- maintain steady speed.

- Explain, in terms of balance of forces, why objects reach a terminal speed:(HL)

- higher speed = more drag
- larger area = more drag
- weight (falling object) or driving force (eg a car) = drag when travelling at terminal speed.

- Recognise that acceleration due to gravity (g) is the same for any object at a given point on the Earth’s surface.
- Understand that gravitational field strength or acceleration due to gravity:(HL)
- is unaffected by atmospheric changes
- varies slightly at different points on the Earth’s surface
- will be slightly different on the top of a mountain or down a mineshaft.

#### P2h Energy of games and Theme rides

- Describe everyday examples in which objects have gravitational potential energy (GPE).
- Recognise everyday examples in which objects use gravitational potential energy (GPE).
- Recognise that objects have gravitational potential energy (GPE) because of their mass and position in Earth’s gravitational field.
- Use the equation:
- GPE = mgh

- Recognise and interpret examples of energy transfer between gravitational potential energy (GPE) and kinetic energy (KE).
- Understand that for a body falling through the atmosphere at terminal speed:(HL)
- kinetic energy (KE) does not increase
- gravitational potential energy (GPE) is transferred to increased internal or thermal energy of the surrounding air particles through the mechanism of friction.

- Use and apply the equation, including a change of subject:(HL)
- GPE = mgh

- Interpret a gravity ride (roller-coaster) in terms of:
- a) kinetic energy (KE)
- b) gravitational potential energy (GPE)
- c) energy transfer.

- Describe the effect of changing mass and speed on kinetic energy (KE):
- a) doubling mass doubles KE
- b) doubling speed quadruples KE.

- Use and apply the relationship(HL)
- mgh = 1/2 mv
^{2}

- mgh = 1/2 mv

- Show that for a given object falling to Earth, this relationship can be expressed as(HL)
- h = v
^{2}÷ 2g

and give an example of how this formula

h = v^{2}/2g could be used.

- h = v