- You should use your knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes shown Here, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words you meet.
At this stage, teaching comprehension should be taking precedence over teaching word reading directly.
Any focus on word reading should support the development of vocabulary.
When pupils are taught to read longer words, they should be supported to test out different pronunciations.
They will attempt to match what they decode to words they may have already heard but may not have seen in print: e.g. in reading technical, the pronunciation “tetchnical” might not sound familiar, but “teknical” should.
- Read more ‘exception’ words, which don’t follow the usual link between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word.
- listen to and talk about a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
- read books that are structured in different ways and read for a range of purposes
- use dictionaries to check the meaning of words that you have read
- increase your familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retell some of these yourself orally
- notice themes and conventions in a wide range of books
- prepare poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing your understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action
- discuss words and phrases that capture your interest and imagination
- recognise some different forms of poetry (e.g. free verse, narrative poetry)
The focus should continue to be on pupils’ comprehension as a primary element in reading.
The knowledge and skills that pupils need in order to comprehend are very similar at different ages.
This is why the programmes of study for comprehension in Years 3 and 4 and Years 5 and 6 are similar: the complexity of the writing increases the level of challenge.
Pupils should be taught to recognise themes in what they read, such as the triumph of good over evil or the use of magical devices in fairy stories and folk tales.
They should also learn the conventions of different types of writing, such as the greeting in letters, a diary written in the first person or the use of presentational devices such as numbering and headings in instructions.
Pupils should be taught to use the skills they have learnt earlier and continue to apply these skills to read for different reasons, including for pleasure, or to find out information and the meaning of new words.
Pupils should continue to have opportunities to listen frequently to stories, poems, non-fiction and other writing, including whole books and not just extracts, so that they build on what was taught previously.
In this way, they also meet books and authors that they might not choose themselves.
Reading, re-reading, and rehearsing poems and plays for presentation and performance give pupils opportunities to discuss language, including vocabulary, extending their interest in the meaning and origin of words.
These activities also provide them with an incentive to find out what expression is required, so feeding into comprehension.
Understand what you read in books by:
- checking that the text makes sense to you, discuss your understanding and explain the meaning of words in context
- asking questions to improve your understanding of a text
- making connections between what a character does and their feelings, thoughts and motives, and justifying these with evidence, predicting what might happen
- noticing main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarising these
- noticing how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning
In using non-fiction, pupils should know what information they need to look for before they begin and be clear about the task. They should be shown how to use contents pages and indexes to locate information.nbsp;
Pupils should have guidance about the kinds of explanations and questions that are expected from them.
They should help to develop, agree on, and evaluate rules for effective discussion. The expectation should be that all pupils take part.
- Retrieve and record information from non-fiction
- Take part in discussion about books that are read to you and those you can read for yourself, taking turns and listening to what others say.
You should know how to:
- use prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them
- spell homophones (Words that sound alike but with different meanings and spellings like been and bean)
- spell words that are often misspelt.
- use the first two or three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary
- write from memory simple sentences, spoken by your teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far.
You should learn to spell new words correctly and have plenty of practice in spelling them.
You should understand how to place the apostrophe in words with regular plurals (e.g. girls’, boys’) and in words with irregular plurals (e.g. children’s).
As in Years 1 and 2, you should continue to be supported in understanding and applying the concepts of word structure.
Dictionaries are not useful if you cannot yet spell, since you do not have sufficient knowledge of spelling to use them efficiently.
- Use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when next to one another, are best left unjoined
You should be using joined handwriting throughout your independent writing.
Handwriting should continue to be taught, with the aim of increasing the fluency with which you are able to write down what you want to say.
This, in turn, will support your composition and spelling.
Increase the legibility, consistency and quality of your handwriting,
- by ensuring that the downstrokes (descenders) of letters are parallel and equidistant;
- that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the upstrokes and downstrokes of letters do not touch
Plan your writing by:
- talking about similar writing, so you can understand and learn from its structure, grammar and vocabulary
- discussing and recording ideas
Draft and write by:
- composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures (See grammar )
- organising paragraphs around a theme
- in stories, create settings, characters and plot
- in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices such as headings and sub-headings
Evaluate and edit by:
- assessing the effectiveness of your own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements
- proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, e.g. the accurate use of pronouns in sentences
- proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors
- read your own writing aloud to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear.
Pupils should continue to have opportunities to write for a range of real purposes and audiences as part of their work across the curriculum.
These purposes and audiences should underpin the decisions about the form the writing should take, such as a narrative, an explanation or a description.
Pupils should understand, through being shown these, the skills and processes that are essential for writing: that is, thinking aloud to explore and collect ideas, drafting, and re-reading to check their meaning is clear, including doing so as the writing develops.
Pupils should be taught to monitor whether their own writing makes sense in the same way that they monitor their reading, checking at different levels.
WRITING Vocabulary, Grammar, Punctuation
Develop your understanding of the concepts in grammar by:
- extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, e.g. when, if, because, although
- using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause
- choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion
- choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately within a sentence to avoid ambiguity and repetition
- using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause
- using fronted adverbials
- learning the grammar of word structure in grammar
Grammar should be taught explicitly: pupils should be taught the terminology and concepts set out in Grammar, and be able to apply them correctly to examples of real language, such as their own writing or books that they have read.
At this stage, pupils should start to learn about some of the differences between Standard English and non-Standard English and begin to apply what they have learnt, for example, in writing dialogue for characters.
Indicate grammatical and other features by:
- using commas after fronted adverbials
- indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with singular and plural nouns
- using and punctuating direct speech
Use and understand the grammatical terminology in grammar accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading.