**QUESTION:** Joe (J), Kiernan (K), and Lola (L) are the only three competitors in a race. Starting with 1^{st} place on the left, list all possible outcomes for the race (e.g. if Joe came 1^{st}, Kiernan 2^{nd}, and Lola 3^{rd}, that would be ‘JKL’).

**ANSWER:** Let’s consider the outcomes in which Joe comes first. We have:

JKL and JLK

Then, if Kiernan comes first, we have

KJL and KLJ

Next, if Lola comes first, we have

LJK and LKJ

Therefore, the total list of outcomes is

JKL, JLK, KJL, KLJ, LJK, and LKJ.